• 24 kwietnia 2015

Świat Idei i Polityki

Tom 8/2008

Spis treści:
studia i analizy:

  • Janusz Golinowski: Paradoksy profesjonalizmu politycznego
    Paradoxes of political professionalism
  • Filip Pierzchalski: Uzasadnianie jako wyraz profesjonalizmu w praktyce politycznej
    Justification as a term of professionalism in political praxis
  • Jacek Ziółkowski: Redukcja autorytetu w procesach specjalizacji i profesjonalizacji
    Reduction of authority in processes of specialization and professionalization
  • Gabriela Szymańska: Twórczość a kompetencje do uprawiania polityki
    The creativity and the competences for the political activity
  • Jarosław Nocoń: Współczesne dylematy politologicznej profesji. W poszukiwaniu tożsamości nauki o polityce
    Contemporary dilemmas of politological profession. In search the identity of political science
  • Marcin Rafałowicz: Niemerytoryczny profesjonalizm - o czym świadczy martwy Fundusz Ekspercki?
    Non-essential professionalism - what dead Expert Found testifies?
  • Mirosław Karwat: Kryteria profesjonalizmu polityków
    The professionalism and pseudo-professionalism of politicians. Components, symptoms, criterions
  • Marlena Borowicz: Typy kampanii wyborczych
    The election campaigns
  • Izabela Kapsa: Język polityków w dyskursie wyborczym kampanii samorządowej 2006 w Bydgoszczy
    The politician's speeches in electoral debate during local electioneering of 2006 in Bydgoszcz
  • Przemysław Żukiewicz: Kondycja władzy w świecie postmodernistycznym. Refleksje inspirowane myślą Jeana Baudrillarda
    Condition of power in the postmodernist world. Reflections inspired by Jean Baudrillard's philosophy
  • Ewa Chmara: Nowe wyzwania - stare problemy. Warunki skuteczności ONZ w procesie likwidacji dysproporcji rozwojowych
    New challenges - old problems. The United Nations in process of liquidation development inequality
  • Łukasz Jureńczyk: Stosunki dwustronne Polski z państwami europejskimi przeciwnymi amerykańskiej polityce wobec Iraku
    Bilateral Relations between Poland and European Countries Opposed to the American Policy towards Iraq
  • Marcin Wałdoch: Teoria krytyczna jako metoda analizy politycznej
    Critical Theory as a method of political analysis

Recenzje / Book reviews:

  • Adam Gwiazda: Thomas L. Friedman: Świat jest płaski. Krótka historia XXI wieku
  • Radosław Sajna: Dale G. Leathers: Komunikacja niewerbalna. Zasady i zastosowania
  • Marcin Jastrzębski:
  • Bożena Gronowska, et al.: Prawa człowieka i ich ochrona
  • Jakub Potulski: Dymitr Zamiatin: Włast' prostranstwa i prostranstwo własti: geograficzeskije obrazy w politikie i mieżdunarodnych otnoszenijach


  • Redakcja: Tadeusz Godlewski, Janusz Golinowski, Artur Laska
  • Sekretarz Redakcji: Izabela Kapsa
  • Recenzent tomu: Stanisław Michałowski
  • Korekta: Hanna Borawska
  • Przygotowanie do druku: Wydawnictwo MARGRAFSEN s.c., Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz Druk:
  • Drukarnia FRANCZAK, Bydgoszcz
  • Copyright@2009 by Instytut Nauk Politycznych, Wszelkie prawa zastrzeżone
  • ISSN 1643-8442

Janusz Golinowski:
Paradoxes of political professionalism
The article presents the preliminary phase of party preelection of candidates and the normative requirements they had to meet in order to find themselves on the official list of candidates announced by the Constitutional Council. Then, the official electoral campaign started. The author presents it in relation especially to such program issues as projects for institutional reforms of the Fifth Republic, economic issues, unemployment, and immigration. The main attention is directed at the proposals of the three most important candidates (altogether there were 12 candidates).
In the further part, the text refers to the results of the first and second rounds and the campaign between these votings. The election results show that the traditional division - the left versus the right - has been maintained. Of particular importance to the final results was the flow of the electorate from candidates who finished their run for the presidency in the first round.

Filip Pierzchalski:

Justification as a term of professionalism in political praxis
The article undertakes the analysis of subtle relationships between mechanism of justification (as a multistage process of shaping the bases/grounds for concrete arguments used by different political subjects) and phenomenon of professionalism in political praxis (as a competent realization of specified profession by some political subjects). Therefore the basic aim of this article is to pay attention to moment of justification (using various techniques of reasoning) as a calculable indication of professionalism in behaviors, actions, decisions etc., appearing in political life. In this matter the article undertakes the following issues:

  • the notion of professionalism, its essence (substance) and factors,

  • the phenomenon of professionalism in political space,

  • two - way explanation of the notion of justification, i.e. over the prism of validation of some statement (logical aspects) and over the prism of vindication of some action (activity aspects),

  • the notion of justification in political praxis.

Finally the article explains the correlation between the process of argumentation (which is the verbal indication of the phenomenon of justification) and professional behavior among political subjects.

Jacek Ziółkowski:

Reduction of authority in processes of specialization and professionalization
Social and political role of authority in every system has many functions. Contemporary we could discern process of revaluation this relation, some even predicts crisis. Evolution of authority is strictly connected with demands of environment. In traditional system authorities ware responsible for stability and duration. They were a link between the past and the present. Approval of authority was rather unquestionable, political and ethical subject had the same legitimating. Contemporary authority became rather expert, advisor. Authority is someone who know more and better than others. E- authority (authority of expertise)has narrow specialty and usually doesn't make a claim to be persuasive in many fields. Among of main reasons evolution of authority, it is necessary to stress the following issues:

  • change of social structure,

  • change of cultural patterns and values,

  • change of political relations (ex. ideology),

  • change of psychological processes: cognitive and evaluative.

Processes of globalization, changing and unpredictable future, technological revolution cause authority has to play today completely different role. The role is due to different needs of their receiver, who is rather individual than collective orientated. Contemporary authority is a link between the present and the future. It's seems that this process will speed up in the future. Evaluation, reduction is alternative way to crisis and evaporation of authority.

Gabriela Szymańska:

The creativity and the competences for the political activity
A minimal level of the politicians professionalism is his routine efficiency, capturing the standard repertoire of rhetoric, procedures, rituals and sociotechnical grippings. Highest degree of the professionalism is personifying a perfectional politician, distinguishing himself with creative aspirations and predispositions. That is discerning politician, able to useful innovations in a sphere of the idea, programs as well as methods. The politicians creativity contains ambitious goals, an ability to anticipation, transgression and innovation, the courage of searches, offering original social solutions. The politician is creative if he is self-developing, if he is overcoming his own limitations and customs; if he is able to force new, better forms of action - conquering the opposition in the environment. The creative-oriented leader knows how to organize collective efforts, to release social initiatives; anyway to achieve the efficient cooperation of his adherents or subordinate as executors.
Most strongly stimulate to the creativity some kinds of motivation: aroused cognitive needs, achievements desire, productively directed ambition (when the actor try to confirm own personal worth and majority by value of his works).
A conformism reduces the human creativity. It's showing in attitudes of politicians in various ways: as surrendering to the pressure of stereotypes and dominating opinion, avoiding unpopular though necessary decisions, acting against own views and principles; as the preference for personal security and constant career even at cost of the identity and dignity; finally, as the own comfort-loving nature. The conformistic decision-maker is a cunctator, simulant, spiner or escaper.

Jarosław Nocoń:

Contemporary dilemmas of politological profession. In search the identity of political science
This brief review of main problems contemporary politological profession, focusing on the criteria, which are applied in the process of professionalization political scientist. The arguments, which has been introduced, motivating the inadequacy of area of politological research to traditional ways delimitation of political science boundary. The dilemmas in this sphere, emphasize the need of wider discussion, or maybe the reconstruction of criteria,which defining politological profile of research.
These questions, although have a theoretical nature, possess essential practical meaning. This concerns, the defining the formal requirements of scientific promotion decisions, and institutional competence recognition. The author tries to answer on such questions how: What criteria provide the qualification of disciplinary appurtenance of scientific work and which constitutes the disciplinary range of politological research? What feature of scientific property, should be taken for classification an explorers to definite discipline? What is more significant, formal set of education or problems, which they realy have undertaken in searches.

Marcin Rafałowicz:

Non-essential professionalism - what dead Expert Found testifies?
The growing complexity of human world both on local and global level force far-reaching specialization and professionalization in political activity as well. The same time in instead of increasing essential assets of politics Poland we deal with explosion of politics' mediagenic. Polish politicians with pleasure reduce any political debate to the level of emotions appealing to simple associations and stereotypes. Expert Found was the one that have had to bring our political scene to the higher level. However, it seems that it is failed creation and political parties are not able to take advantage of founds that are transferred to such institution. It also constitutes certain temptation for political activists and their background to whom occur preparation of paid opinions having doubtful usefulness for party organizations. It seems that Expert Found could be successfully eliminated from political-legal polish system but questions regarding essentiality of our political scene might be regulated by natural social processes. Politics in democratic systems respond on particular demand and if such expectation of their electorate will be than they are forced to increase a standard of politic they pursued. It is as well optimistic conception as full of hope since in Poland there is still a need for efficient politics characterized in professionalism.

Mirosław Karwat:

The professionalism and pseudo-professionalism of politicians. Components, symptoms, criterions
A political professionalism is a multifaceted phenomenon. This concept can mean: professional employment; professional competence (knowledge and capacities); consistent specialist thinking and acting; the appropriate personnel policy, the adequate division of work and the allotment suitable to the skill of tasks, of talents and motivation of participants.
A professionalism as an attitude is a syndrome of such features as: the professional efficiency and proficiency, even perfection; professional reliability; responsibility; social servility and utility. However unprofessional behaviours, contrary to these requirements, are happening even for genuine professionals; mainly because of emotions, ideological or personal passion. A dilettantism is in contradiction with a professionalism: this is the tendency to entering the field of the own incompetence. In addition the self-confidence and the complacency of the ignorants are disproportionate to their knowledge and real effects. A socially unproductive efficiency and tactical agility or craftiness to own use are only the substitute of the professionalism, if the wingame secure exclusively the own position and the influence of the gambler, no solving any social problems. These are a disabled professionalism, a quasi-professionalism.
Also numerous signs exist pseudoprofesjonalizmu: ideological ritualism; ceremonial or procedural routine; vulgar pragmatism (fetishization of the temporary effectiveness); shrewd machiavellianism; surveys and marketing fetishization, which tempt to populistic decision making instead of action in accordance with the professional knowledge and feeling the responsibility.

Marlena Borowicz:

The election campaigns
An election campaign is an inseparable element of every election process. It is time preceding all democratic elections which in its being is exceptional and unique.
This article is aimed at presenting to the comprehensive systematization of election campaigns. Ten criteria allowing to understand the complexity of the discussed political phenomenon were adopted. They are these criteria: the object, the time, the spatial reach, the legitimacy, the sequence of voting, the way of competition, the aim, the way of reaching the electorate, technological trends, methods of proceedings. For example the authoress assigned to the first criterion such electoral campaigns as: european, presidential, parliamentary, self-government.
The systematization of election campaigns described in the article seems as of today to use up the complexity of the description of that political phenomenon. Maybe in the future implementing new criteria of the typology will be necessary. It will happen probably as a result of the rapid development of an contemporary election campaigns, and new criteria will concern rather strategic and tactical matters, than they will result from prescriptive regulations.

Izabela Kapsa:

The politician's speeches in electoral debate during local electioneering of 2006 in Bydgoszcz
The research made by the author of this article is characteristic of the politician's language propagated during electoral campaings as posters, leaflets, publications and also during the meetings and public debates. These forms of communication between candidates and voters show the kind of mottos, slogans or images used to convince the electors to vote for promoted politicians.
The first part of the article is a description of the electoral contest between the candidates for councillorship. The latter part concentrates on the politician's rivalry for the presidental post of Bydgoszcz, these campaings were often more spectacular. When the candidates for councillors used to use a lot of different ideas for the city development in their programme, either their own mottos or the party mottos as a future vision of city development, at the same time - the aspirants for president were very similar in their political offer but differed greatly by presentation. A typical situation where the candidates have similar goals, tasks and beliefs that only their own victory will provide welfare for the city and prosperity for its citizens. Candidates use many different types of speech to express similar messages.

Przemysław Żukiewicz:

Condition of power in the postmodernist world. Reflections inspired by Jean Baudrillard's philosophy
Jean Baudrillard was a controversial sociologist and philosopher. He was the author of the theory of simulacra and simulation. He argued in his works the following thesis: "Reality doesn't exist", "The war is a continuation of the absence of politics by other means" (with reference to Clausewitzian formula), "Terrorist attack on the WTC was absolute event".
The author of this article tries to find an answer to the question: Where do the categories of power and leadership occure in Baudrillard's philosophy? In the conclusion the author claims that - according to the French philosopher - political leaders are nowadays the same simulation as reality which they live and act in. In the age of mediatization of politics this thesis is daily validated.

Ewa Chmara:

New challenges - old problems. The United Nations in process of liquidation development inequality
Differences between countries are the immanent feature of social growth but these days that situation had been complicated by globalization. The benefits of globalization are not so obvious because the new opportunities like: faster growth, higher living standards, promotion of democratic values aren't equally distributed and the global market is not yet underpinned by rules based on shared social objectives. That realities cause serious consequences for safety and peace in world.
Those issues are the main challenge for international community. They determinate live standard of people and future of our planet. For that reasons author analyse what United Nations are making to find a solution to that problems and where are both - the main difficulties and weaknesses of international act system. Only that kind of Organizations have a legitimation to create an international forum which is necessary to find a solution for international issue. That is why autor is indicated those problems of inequality as a priority over national interests.

Łukasz Jureńczyk:

Bilateral Relations between Poland and European Countries Opposed to the American Policy towards Iraq
Poland supported George W. Bush's Iraqi policy and sent soldiers who were supposed to fight, together with Americans, against Saddam Hussein's regime. The decision was highly risky for Poland, as it had been taken at the time when Poland was just about to enter the European Union. Both Germany and France, playing crucial role in the EU, were against any military sanctions towards Iraq. There were predictions that Polish actions, contrary to the European power's vision, would result in a serious crisis. There were even fears that it would impede Poland joining the EU. Indeed, the crisis occurred, however it soon became only the background for European problems. Iraqi issue led also to the deterioration of the relations between Poland and Russia. Moscow's government did not approve of the consolidation of American's position in the Middle-East and in Middle-East Europe.

Marcin Wałdoch:

Critical Theory as a method of political analysis
The article analyses the work of a Frankfurt School, founded by Felix Weil family in 1923 in Frankfurt. Main author's intention is to make the critical theory of practical use in contemporary political analysis. The author tries to explain, how Max Horkheimer's theory (and critical discourse analysis) can be a practical tool, which can describe possibility of making a social change. The author stresses the theory's emancipation role, and demonstrates that critical theory can be an explanatory, practical and normative mode of social inquiry. Debunking and demystification of contrasts between the possible construction of life and its present state is the critical theory's main objective. To present contemporary methods of political analysis the author uses Klaus von Beyme's proposal. The author suggests that Paul K. Feyerabend is right, when he writes about science. Feyerabend's point of view is completely different from traditional theory. He has got a new idea which means for him anything goes in science, especially in social science.
This article proves that immanent critic is a part of interdisciplinary studies, an idea that was regarded as a method to achieve the goal of Frankfurt School. This paper uses theoretical and analytical resources to explore processes and conflicts over efforts to present tragic events as spectacles, focusing on a case study of Hurricane Katrina. It shows who is real victims, and who is responsible for one of the biggest disaster in USA history. The author is confident, that critical analysis discourse is a very useful methodology in politics analysis. The article is used by the author in his research focused on answers to the question "How do you think, why Donald Tusk is a PM"? 

Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego, Redakcja czasopisma Świat Idei i Polityki,

ul. ks. J. Poniatowskiego 12, 85-671 Bydgoszcz, tel. 52 32 59 230