World of Ideas and Politics

Volume 16

World of Ideas and Politics

Volume 16/2017

Table of contents

Studies and analyses

Krzysztof Kofin, Mateusz Kofin
Pontifical University of John Paul II in Cracov
Inductive method of Feliks Koneczny in the study of civilizations and historical laws

Summary: The article presents an inductive research method used by Cracow historian Felix Koneczny, used in the study of civilization and historical laws, which according to the scientist proved, that history is on par with the natural sciences.
Keywords: historiography, induction method, civilization, quincunx, historical law.

Jonathan Scovil
University of Warsaw
The notion of „socialism” in political thought of Alexis de Tocqueville 

Summary: The article presents an analysis of an original conception of socialism outlined in the works of Alexis de Tocqueville. The author begins with a brief presentation of historical context in which the views of French thinker were shaped, referring to his experiences from the period of the July Revolution of 1830 and the February Revolution of 1848. The author goes on to detailed analysis of his defi nition of socialism, making an indispensable reference to his republican conception of freedom and the role of a citizen in democracy. Finally, the author looks at Tocquevillian vision of genesis of socialist ideas, associated by him with anxiety, which democratic system inevitably generates.
Keywords: Alexis de Tocqueville, socialism, freedom, French Revolution, French Second Republic

Mateusz Ambrożek
Jagiellonian University
Revolution of nihilism. National socialism and political realism in Hermann Rauschning’s thought

Summary: The article deals with the political realism of Hermann Rauschning. Briefl y discussing the historical backgrounds of Rauschning’s views, the theory of political realism with its version in the German author, the distinction of two types of realism, and the compilation of theory and practice. The author wanted to emphasize the defensive character of the Rauschning’s realism aimed at defending the state of possession before the National Socialist revolution. Rauschning did not require realists to create new approaches- it was based on the premise that continuing the policy of peaceful development of relations between states would sustain a prosperous situation. In the topic of two types of realism, Rauschning listed the perfect realism, based on the previously mentioned defense of state of possession and national-socialistic realism, which was based on subordinating the rules of political action to abstract purposes. According to Rauschning, such action distorted the sense of realism, because on the one hand it blurred the boundary between real policy conditioning and ideological fl attening; On the other hand, it provided the opportunity to pursue a political scenario that was incompatible with the vital interests of the community, which fell under the jurisdiction of the authority. The author also listed extensively the dangers associated with the distorted use of the determinants of the theory of realism, which led to the loss of primordial signifi cance by universal political concepts.
Keywords: national socialism, political realism, Hermann Rauschning, theory of politics, practical politics

Marek Górka
Koszalin University of Technology
Anti-terrorism policy as a dilemma of liberal democracy 

Summary: Terrorism is harmful to democratic governments and societies. In addition to the visible and the direct eff ects of attacks on bystanders, aim bombers are undermining democratic values, including the weakening of confi dence in state institutions and laws that regulate their functioning. As a result of the use of violence can permanently give birth to create a socio-political divisions, antagonize certain entities and groups, and thus provoke confl icts thus destroying the existing compromises, agreements or arrangements between the parties concerned. In matters of international terrorism it is not only a challenge for the rule of law, but because it also applies to relations between states, poses a serious threat to security and stability.
Keywords: Security policy, anti-terrorism, counter-intelligence, freedom, privacy, law

Tomasz Kasprzak
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
Populist rhetoric in the parliamentary election campaign in the Czech Republic from 2017

Summary: The paper presents the history of the populist dimension. Populism is depicted in this article as a phenomenon with many planes of conceptualization. In order to combine the considerations of populism and the party system, Czech groups have been investigated, which can be included in the current commonly called modern populism in modern politics. The subject of the study was not marginal groups, including detached parties, and those which have been present on the Czech political scene since 1993: ČSSD, ODS, TOP09, KDU-ČSL, ANO 2011, KSČM.
Keywords: populism, Czech Republic, election campaign.

Dominika Narożna, Aleksandra Jeż
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
Creating of reality in propaganda documentaries. The case of Leni (Helene Amalie Berthy) Riefenstahl on the basis of “Triumph of the Will” and “Olympia” 

Summary: The aim of this article is to present the biography of a film director- L. Riefenstahl, with an emphasis on her propaganda documentary works by the example of two documentaries: “Triumph of the Will” and “Olympia”. The thesis stated by the authors of this article is about creating reality by L. Riefenstahl. The authors present the propaganda techniques used by the director in her documentaries. The authors base this work on the analysis of audiovisual productions, historical method and finally- deduction.
L. Riefenstahl was the artist with a great experience. As the director, not only was she innovative and unconventional, but also she was able to use and transfer her experience gained on other fields of her own life onto audiovisual productions. Therefore, the critics value Riefenstahl’s works due to their innovatory character and technical nuances. Although L. Riefenstahl is one of the most talented documentary directors, still, vast majority of her fi lms were vile propaganda at the service of the 3rd Reich. Worshipping Hitler, love of symbols and faith in NSDAP is highly visible in Riefenstahl’s works.
Keywords: L. Riefenstahl, A. Hitler, documentary film, “Triumph of the Will”,” Olympia”, creating of reality, propaganda, manipulation.

Marcin Wałdoch
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Self-immolators as a new social movement? An attempt to systemize phenomenon in integral and system conceptualization

Summary: In this paper an author highlight that political selfimmolation has been occurring for nearly two thousand years and the main center of this phenomenon is in Asia. Unifi cation of attitudes and globalization are factors that in a fl ash spread information around the world. This means that about self-immolation everyone, potentially, know in a minute after it occur. Against common knowledge self-immolation are done because of socio-political reasons, deeply altruistic and not because of psychological reasons or unadjustedness of self-immolators as proposed by representatives of nondemocratic regimes. Self-immolation phenomenon is worth of permanent observation by political scientists as they may lead to political changes of great importance as it was in Tunisia (2010). Those who have power and authority by breaking human rights are responsible for self-immolation acts.
Keywords: self-immolation, system analysis, social movements, globalization, human rights.

Agnieszka Pazderska
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Slactivism - illusory activity or real action?

Summary: The development of new technologies at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries led to a considerable virtualization of everyday life. Young people increasingly perceive new technologies as a space to create their own identity, as well as to new sources of virtual acquaintanceship. Slacktivism, which is termed by most researchers as a pejorative phenomenon, is also used in today’s reality to promote various events or social campaigns. The main purpose of this article is to answer the question whether passive activism is only an illusory activity of young people, or can lead to a greater involvement in real life.
Keywords: slacktivism, clicktivism, internet activism, new technology, young people.

Piotr Walewicz
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
A comparative analysis of impeachment in Spanish America in 1993 – 2015

Summary: Sudden changes in power and unfi nished terms have been a part of Latin American politics since the countries’ birth. For more than one and a half century they had been made by way of coup d’état or revolution. However, the „third wave” of democratization brought new, democratic and legal ways to remove the most important people from power. The article aims to compare specifi c cases of impeachment, which took the place of the coup, although the political, economic and social background diff ers in each case. The analysis showed that some patterns are noticeable, like removing a president after a corruption scandal or because he had not fulfi lled his campaign promises or because of mass demonstrations of discontent with neoliberal reforms. Impeachment is a very welcome alternative to any use of force, but at the same time its high frequency proves that there are some faults in the political systems.
Keywords: impeachment, unconsolidated democracy, Latin America – politics XX and XXI century.

Adam Martofel
Centre for Strategic Analysis and Policy
Impossible Peace- Kurds in Turkey under AKP rule

Summary: The purpose of this article is a presentation of Turkey’s state policy toward the Kurds, the Republic of Turkey’s largest ethnic minority under AKP rule. The main point of reference is an internal situation in Turkey from the 2000s. The author points out the beginnings of the next stage of Kurdish-Turkish confl ict taking into account the results of the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2014 and 2015 and Turkey’s security policy after a failed coup d’état attempt on July 2016. This paper provides a new wave of political repression against Kurds and discusses the Kurdish issue as one of the interests of the main regional powers including Turkey, Iran, Syria and Russian Federation. Finally the article indicates Turkey’s military engagement role in Syrian Civil War and implicates this engagement on the situation of Kurds in Republic of Turkey and in the region. As a result of the analysis, author pointed out possibility to reinforce of Kurdish nationalism and support of the Kurds for PKK. The eff ect of the new anti-PKK strategy will probably be increased political polarisation. It is also probable that the PKK will intensify its actions. At the same time, the strategy may lead to the consolidation of the AKP’s and Erdoğan’s electorate, resulting in strengthening the government’s position. In the regional dimension, the strategy requires an increase in Turkish actions on Iraqi and Syrian soil. Taking into account the relationship between PKK and PYD, Turkish military intervention in Syria and involvement in Iraq could lead to greater consolidation of Kurds in all three states. As an example for international relations, Turkey’s tense relations with Iran, which is interested in preserving its infl uence over Iraq, and the central government in Bagdad may be further strained.
Keywords: Kurds, Turkey, Kurdish-Turkish conflict, AKP, Peace process

Mateusz Danielewski
University of Warsaw
Foreign policy priorities of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea 

Summary: In this article, author want to analyze the priorities of foreign policies of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the Republic of Korea. In order to achieve the above aim of research, author of this work put a few basic research questions: what are the priorities of North Korean foreign policy and what are the priorities of South Korean foreign policy? The author used the analysis method to demonstrate the originality of this paper. The article allows to pay attention to the extent to which national interests and foreign policies of both Korea diff er from each other. The subject of this article has not been studied in polish scientifi c articles. The author has attempted to fi ll this gap.
North Korea’s foreign policy is focused on surviving regime in the international arena. The priority of foreign policy of the Republic of Korea is primarily the pursuit of deepening economic cooperation with China, Japan, Russia and the United States.
Keywords: foreign policy, DPRK, Republic of Korea, priorities, international relations.

Anna Stańczyk
University of Łódź
Violence and social consequences of the confl icts in Liberia and Sierra Leone

Summary: The civil war in Liberia began in 1989, when the country was attacked by the rebels of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) led by Charles Taylor. In Sierra Leone the civil war was initiated in 1991 by Revolutionary United Front (RUF) led by Foday Sankoh. The article describes the specifi cs of the confl icts in Liberia and Sierra Leone. It discusses social and economic context of the wars as well as causes of their longevity. In addition, it presents the international community actions for ending the prolonged civil war in Sierra Leone and the importance of the policy „weapon for diamonds”. The article uses a historical-analytical method of research.
Keywords: Africa, Liberia, Sierra Leone, blood diamonds, arms trade.

Bartosz Szczepaniak
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Partnership NATO–Sweden

Summary: Article characterizes relations between most powerful military pact – Northern Atlantic Pact and neutral state – Sweden. In this article is analyzing cooperation on military ground, non-military ground and it is also analyzing aspects of cooperation involving neutral status of Sweden, Crimea annexation and growing danger from Russia. Studies connected to main theme of article were based on off icial documents od NATO, press notes or off icial releases. Main reason of article is to answer on question if neutral state can cooperate with NATO and can we say that between NATO and Sweden exists partnership relation. Except of above issues, in this article I will try to defi ne neutrality, neutral policy and partnership. After made analysis of available documents, emphatically we can agree that partnership between NATO and Sweden exists.
Keywords: NATO, Sweden, partnership, neutrality, military, security strategic.

Joanna Iwaszkiewicz
Toruń City Hall
International Committee “Blue Sheet” in the culture protection system

Summary: The aim of the article is to present the functioning of the International Committee on the Blue Shield in the system of protection of cultural property in the conditions of war and natural disasters. The author has analyzed the problem through the prism of the international legal status of protection of cultural goods and the practical activities of the International Committee of the Blue Shield in the world and in Poland. The protection of cultural property in the context of military threats and natural disasters is an important element of the state’s cultural policy and of the international community’s activities carried out under international law. In spite of over one hundred years of improvement of the law of cultural heritage protection, numerous cultural objects have been destroyed. The ineff ectiveness of state protection has contributed to the protection of international NGOs. One of them is the International Board of the Blue Shield, which brings together national committees dedicated to the preparation of the protection of cultural property during confl icts and natural disasters. Non-governmental organizations provide greater opportunities for the protection of cultural goods in a variety of threats.
Keywords: cultural assets as a spoil of war, protection of cultural property, Blue Shield.

Agata Płachecka
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Pedophilia in the Catholic Church during the pontificates of Benedict XVI and Pope Francis

Summary: One of the main internal social problems with which the institution of the Catholic Church struggles over the last two pontificates is the occurrence of pedophilia in its ranks. The article analyzes the diff erence in the approach to the problem over the last two pontificates, and the studied scale of the phenomenon and the territorial scope allow undoubtedly giving this practice a global character. Based on the analyzes of pontifi cates, the picture of the problem of pedophilia in the Church clearly emerges as a legacy after many years of policy of covering this type of sexual abuse by church leaders. The disclosure of cases of sexual abuse committed by ministers in individual countries was the direct cause of the crisis of the local universal Churches during the pontifi cate of Benedict XVI and Pope Francis.
Keywords: Catholic church, pedophilia, sexual abuse, canonic law, pontificate.

Piotr Kurzawa
University of Wrocław
Political thought of polish underground national movement during World War II 

Summary: Nationalists were one of the numerous Polish political movements during World War II. Actively engaging in the fi ght against the occupying forces, they suff ered heavy losses, but does not prevent them in the creation of signifi cant heritage in the fi eld of political thought. The aim of the article is to present the political thought of Polish national movement during the Second World War. Historical, qualitative and comparative methods were used. The whole has been divided into several parts,, in which author examines the with issues of political thought as: Polish war aims, vision of state borders, ratio to national minorities, vision of the political system, economic vision, vision of national security, education and upbringing. The whole article has to show how rich the heritage of those generations.
Keywords: political thought, national movement, conspiracy, war aims, boundaries, ethnic minorities, political system, economy, national security, education, upbringing.

Dominik Flisiak
Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
How to be a Polish Jew and supporter of Zionism-revisionist after 1939? The thing about Jakub Perelman’s fate 

Summary: Jakub Perelman, the author of memoirs, was born on 20 December 1902 in Warsaw. He was politically linked to the Zionist revisionists. This movement was created after the First World War thanks to the activity of Vladimir Jabotinsky. He was a poet, a soldier and a politician. Perelman’s memoirs concern his political activity, Polish Jewish relations during the Second Polish Republic, events from the Second World War, and his views on life in People’s Poland. The last fragment of the memoir is related to Israel, where Perelman was in the early 1960s.
Keywords: Perelman, Jabotinsky, Poland, Palestine, communism.

Konrad Papuziński
Zespół Szkół nr 15 Mistrzostwa Sportowego w Bydgoszczy im. Teresy Ciepły
The social security of the sportsmen in PRL in 1970s by the case of football

Summary: This article concerns the social security of sportsmen in PRL in 1970s on the example of football. The author concentrates his attention on earnings and the access to luxury goods of the most prominent Polish players. He highlights their social origin, the posibilities of professional development and personal price of success. This work bases on various sources and what is particularly important, also on reports and primary sources.
Keywords: social security, PRL, sportsmen.

Stefan Pastuszewski
University of Bydgoszcz
NSZZ “Solidarność” years 1980 – 1990 as an integrated factor of Kujawsko-Pomorskie region

Summary: Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity” did not accept the disintegration of the state by dividing into 49 small provinces and districts liquidation – both in the program and operations sought to community actions. Similarly happened in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie region, where “Solidarity” unionists in the public and conspiracy activities sought to create a macro-region of their trade union within the limits of the liquidated in 1975 Bydgoszcz-region. By 1989 cooperation between regions: Bydgoszcz, Toruń and Włocławek was very good. The experience of “Solidarity” can now be used in the process of integration of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie region, as an idea of regional solidarity – a sense of mutual dependence and mutual responsibility for the prosperity and development of the entire region.
Keywords: Solidarity, region, integration, cooperation.

Arkadiusz Woźniak
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
Poland’s space policy in statu nascendi 

Summary: The purpose of the article is to analyze the actions of Polish authorities regarding the creation of the Polish space policy. Activity in space in the twentieth century and development of cooperation with international organizations were presented. Bilateral agreements and the possibility of new forms of action were analyzed as well as private entities as co-creators of space policy. Tasks in the process of creating the Polish space policy, the division of competences, the use of optional programmes were indicated. There is also a presentation of management reforms, financing through the selection of several levels of action and adopting the hierarchy of key tasks for the state, to ensure eff ective implementation of the assumed projects.
Keywords: Policy, Outer Space, Agency, Activity.

Jan Kujawski
University of Warsaw
Unrealized PO–PiS coalition in a selected press publications 

Summary: The article contains issues connected with unsuccessful attempt to form a government of the Civic Platform and Law and Justice after the parliamentary elections in 2005. The basis of the article content analysis includes selected texts related to coalition formation appearing in two daily press titles: “Gazeta Wyborcza” and “Rzeczpospolita” in the period from September 1, 2005 to October 31, 2005. Considerations focused on identifying the most important topics constituting differences between the two parties. The aim of the article was to analyse the press discourse and, as a consequence, answer the question of how the main reasons for not creating the PO–PiS coalition were presented in the pages of two newspapers.
Keywords: coalition PO–PiS, content analysis, analysis of the press, political sociology, modern history.

Bartosz Mazurkiewicz
University of Szczecin
Bologna Process and the condition of higher education in Poland

Summary: Higher education in the era of globalization, the growing specialization, interdisciplinarity, internationalization – is constantly evolving. With the Bologna process of european education adapts to the changes. In particular, the changes in the way education at the tertiary level, the introduction of quality standards, the promotion of mobility, creating a universal comparable qualifi cations framework. The article describes the history of the Bologna Process; characterized tools to achieve the main objectives; made a preliminary assessment of the state of higher education in Poland compared to other European countries; an attempt to identify future prospects, developments and challenges.
Keywords: Bologna Process, higher education.

Adam Sokołowski
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Axiological conditions of activity of guerrilla warfare organizations and military classes in Poland since 2010

Summary: The article is presenting axiological conditions of the activity of paramilitary organizations and military classes in context of recruitment. In context of the article author presents background narration that appear while creating and managing educational and training organizations. Author pointed diff erences between causes of joining to the military classes and paramilitary organizations. Features and formula of recruitment can be useful for directors of military schools, commanders or paramilitary organizations and people that are connected with security educations as well.
Keywords: paramilitary organizations, military school and class, paramilitary organizations recruitments, military school and class recruitments.

Martyna Rajek
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Urban space in the Polish reality – contemporary conditions and the prospect of development

Summary: The model of contemporary urban centers is shaped as a result of the influence of a growing number of pejorative urban processes as well as newly emerging global trends on the spatial and social structure of the agglomeration. As a result, urban spaces are transformed into defragmented structures, characterized by much lower readability than their modernist counterparts, which is an important dilemma associated with reality and the environment in which the future man would function. This article is therefore an attempt to diagnose the condition of Polish urban spaces and to indicate the ongoing transformations that require the most urgent actions to stop unfavorable conversions. The essence is also the approximation of the process of urban renewal, as well as the awareness of the prognostic conditions of Polish urban cities in the future.
Keywords: Polish urban space, cities of the future, smart growth, urban renewal, modernity, urban processes, urban crisis.

Magdalena Miśko
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
How to use statistical data? Analysis of the case of mass events in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship

Summary: The aim of the study is to present the wealth of public statistics resources, illustrated by the basic statistical data on mass events. The paper analyzes the statistical results obtained from the research „Mass entertainment and sports events in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship compared to other Polish voivodeships and the whole country. The results show that mass events, especially in the form of sporting events, are the strength of the region and can be a showcase for the Kujawsko-Pomorskie region in Poland.
Keywords: statistical research, mass event, statistical research methods, Kujawsko-Pomorskie region.