World of Ideas and Politics

Volume 17

World of Ideas and Politics

Volume 17/2018

Table of contents

Studies and analyses

Sara Piwowarska
University of Silesia in Katowice
The European Union towards the arm conflicts and socio-political changes in the MENA region in the 20th and 21st centuries

Summary: The countries of the Middle East and North Africa are one of the main areas of interest of the European Union, and the main determinants of mutual relations are primarily the economy and security policy. The aim of the article is to show how the position of the European Union is shaped in relation to the main challenges and threats in this region, to which the Israeli-Arabic conflict, the Palestinian issue and the so-called Arab Spring, as well as the escalation of the conflict in Syria and the problem of international terrorism.
Keywords: European Union, Middle East, North Africa, conflicts, relations 

Ewelina Szydłowska
University of Wrocław
A retrospective of bilateral economic relations between EU and Russia 

Summary: The European Union and Russia are different in economic terms. In opposite to traditional Russia, the EU is a new type of international community. Both sides are both partners and rivals aware of their addiction. The rivalries result from the collision defending Russia’s sphere of influence and the aspirations of the enlarging Union. The Union’s goal is to develop not only through deepening cooperation, but also by admitting new members to the community. The Russian Federation in the development of the EU sees a threat to its superpower position, and this is also the result of actions aimed at inducing disintegration in the EU, because the divided Europe is a weak Europe.
Keywords: Russia, EU, integration, energy, bilateral relations

Nicole Pietrzak
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
The European Union policies in the area of combating terrorism 

Summary: The subject of this dissertation is the European Union policies in the area of combating terrorism. The fact that terrorism is regarded as being one of the biggest threats to European Security determined the choice of the subject. The author has tried to explain the terminology applying to terrorism, the history of terrorism, and present methods of fi ght against it. The objective of the article is the analysis of the European Union main actions taken and decisions made in this respect. One of many determinants that infl uenced tightening of this policy were the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the USA on 11 September 2001. Also, frequent terrorist attacks forced the European Union member states constant cooperation and continued efforts regarding actions to counter terrorism which is both social and political phenomenon.
Keywords: terrorism, European Union, counter-terrorism policy, security policy, anti-terrorism

Marcin Wałdoch
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Cybersecurity strategies of New Zealand and Poland in the process of globalization

Summary: In this paper an author conduct comparative analysis of New Zealand and Poland cybersecurity strategies. During this research a hypothesis was confi rmed that cybersecurity strategies of analyzed countries diff er because of their political systems of these countries. Moreover an author has highlighted that alliances known from real world are transformed into cyberspace. Thus New Zealand stay close, when creating cybersecurity, to USA, Australia and Canada, when Poland is committed to the European Union structures.
Keywords: cybersecurity, New Zealand, Poland, globalization, comparative analysis 

Ewa Piórecka
Jagiellonian University
Organized crime in Italy and its impact on organized crime in some European countries

Summary: This article presents some Italian criminal organizations that have expanded their activities outside Italy. The factors influencing the shaping of criminal groups are also presented and the history of selected groups of this type is described. The origins of the word mafia were made. Types of organized crime were presented. The directions of emigration of Italian groups were indicated.
Keywords: Italy, mafia, Camorra, Cosa Nostra, Ndrangheta, emigration, France, Germany, organized crime

Patrycja Rutkowska
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw
The protection of cultural property in non-international armed conflicts 

Summary: In her article, the author points out that contemporary armed conflicts are often of a non-international nature. She provides the example of the ongoing confl ict in Syria and Iraq as one in which cultural property of universal importance has been at risk of destruction. Based on the defi nition of non-international armed confl ict, she notes that only a limited number of treaties belonging to the fi eld of international humanitarian law include provisions aimed at protecting cultural property during an armed conflict. She praises the inclusion of rules concerning the safeguarding of cultural property to the general body of international customary law. She also notes that the introduction of the concept of individual responsibility for violations of international humanitarian law may pave the way for a more eff icient exercise of rules concerning the safeguarding of cultural property in armed conflicts.
Keywords: protection of cultural property, armed conflicts, international humanitarian law, conflict in Syria and Iraq, international customary law

Igor Szpotakowski
Jagiellonian University
State sovereignty and the rule of law: the codification of private law in China

Summary: The main issue of this article is a comparison of codification of private law in the Republic of China (1912–1949) with the current fifth attempt to codify civil law in the People’s Republic of China, which is planned to be enacted in 2020. The aim of the paper is to prove that in both the most important factors for drafting new laws were not the internal needs of the state, but the necessity to regulate the position of the country on the international arena. The analysis is based on two main concepts: sovereignty and the rule of law, which are crucial for understanding this issue.
Keywords: China, history of law, civil law, codification, sovereignty, rule of law

Katarzyna Grabowska
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Contemporary nationalisms as a manifestation of the paradox of globalization

Summary: Transformations within national and international policies infl uenced by globalization, cause changes in value systems and related modifications in the conditions of functioning of political entities, contributing to their evolution. This publication is an attempt to show new directions in international relations and to show certain regularities that follow periodically, determining the behavior of political participants. The starting point for the research is the indication of contemporary manifestations of nationalism, analysis of progressing globalization and the relationship that exists between them. On this basis will be indicated regularities, which infl uence the shaping of the structure of social support for liberal or nationalist postulates. The publication may contribute to changing the perception of the nature of globalization and understanding the reasons for the increase in support for liberalism and nationalism.
Keywords: nationalism, liberalism, globalization, cycle theory

Bartosz Kwiatkowski
Jagiellonian University
The semiological approach to the studies of the political myth by the example of the Smolensk myth

Summary: This article is an attempt to present the Smolensk myth (which is a very important subject in Polish myth studies) from the perspective of the semiological approach. The analysis of the two most important theories in that field: one by Roland Barthes and another one by Tadeusz Biernat, will allow to examine the mythologization of the social and political reality after the Smolensk catastrophe. That examination will be conducted by analysing the ways of creating symbolic signs which may express the mythical political meaning. That analysis will also enable the depiction of the semiological meaning of political myths in the events or statements from the times after the catastrophe. In conclusion, the aim of this article will be a depiction of an historical event, which had an enormous impact on today’s Polish political reality, from the perspective of creation of the mythical constructs in the collective memory.
Keywords: political myth, semiology, Smolensk cathastrophe, political myth theory, collective memory 

Marcin Jędrysiak
University of Wrocław
Question of racism in the thought of the ideologists of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (1929–1945)

Summary: The goal of the article is to show what role did the racist elements play in the ideology of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and whether they were present in that ideology at all. In the scientific discourse it remains controversial, whether OUN was in fact a fascist organization. Those discussions very often ignore the question of racism and its role in both Italian fascism and Ukrainian nationalism. It is also rarely analyzed what was the nature of those racist elements. In the article the historical-legal method has been used, as well as the comparative method. The problem has not been analyzed in the chronological manner, in order to secure the clarity of the article Applied structure of the paper allows showing the analyzed problem from the most general questions to more detailed ones. Works of the ideologists connected with OUN, such as Dmytro Dontsov, Volodymyr Martynec’, Dmytro Orlyk, Yuliyan Vassyjan and Yuriy Lypa have been analyzed, Author decided to underline most important parts of their thought presented in their books and pamphlets and compare their views on each issue. It allowed to indicate that racism is often a topic presented in the works of the ideologists of OUN, although there is no one version of that thought. Every author presents his own view on that topic and other approach. However, they seem to become gradually more interested in the problem of the race in late 30’s and 40’s. However Ukrainian racism is not a biological racism. It treats the race as the spiritual phenomenon with a biological substrate.
Keywords: Ukraine, racism, nationalism, OUN, ideology, fascism

Jakub Piotr Barszczewski
University of Białystok
World Social Forum as a subject of cosmopolitan politics 

Summary: The World Social Forum emerged at the beginning of the 21st century as the leading subject of the alterglobalist movement. It brings together movements that oppose neo-liberal globalization and fight against the ever-weaker control of citizens over the actions of powerful national and supranational entities. As an institution uniting diverse groups excluded from all over the world, it aims to create a platform of global resistance. The innovative dimension of the Forum is to challenge the narrow understanding of alternatives to the current economic and political order and to create conditions for a cosmopolitan policy aimed at grassroots, decentralized and democratic global governance. The aim of the article is to present the characteristics of the World Social Forum as a subject of cosmopolitan politics, to show the challenges ahead and to reveal its political potential.
Keywords: World Social Forum, alterglobalism, neoliberalism, cosmopolitanism, Boaventura de Sousa Santos.

Aleksander Zbirański
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
Digital crowd – characteristics of the phenomenon 

Summary: The purpose of this article is to describe the phenomenon of the digital crowd, which is a phenomenon specifi c to the functioning of political debate on the Internet (with particular emphasis on social media). Referring to the concept of Le Bon and Girard, it presents the behavior of the digital crowd and its importance for the development of public debate in the area of mass communication such as the Internet.
Keywords: Crowd, Internet, democracy, equality, media

Alina Kaszkur
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
The determinants of the diffusion of i-voting as public innovation 

Summary: This article analyzes the determinants which have an influence on the process of spreading i-voting as public innovation. The basis for their interpretation was the Everett M. Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory. The review of terms: innovation, public innovation, diffusion of innovation and i-voting found in source literature has been made. The attributes of i-voting were a basis for interpretation of its acceptance. This article points out how important role in this process plays the important attributes of innovation and its connection with number of external factors such as political, social and cultural.
Keywords: diffusion of innovation, innovation, public innovation, i-voting

Daniel Kur
University of Szczecin
Adaptation of economic marketing instruments for the needs of politicians

Summary: The most important issues of the article are common tools in two different sections, namely political marketing and economical marketing. The most important trains of the implementation of the economical marketing to politics are presented in this article. The dissertation identifi es the factors, which have determined the influence of the economy on politics. More precisely, it presents the influence of the marketing and the advertisement of the product on the political campaigns. The main though is based on concrete examples of pioneers of political marketing. In this article a perceptive reader is going to find similarities and diff erences presented in the process of permeation of these two branches in the activities of the present-day society.
Keywords: economic marketing, political marketing, politics

Szymon Wasielewski
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
The organized crime in Poland after 1989 – Pruszkow and Wolomin

Summary: The collapse of the Eastern Bloc in 1989 has led to meaningful social, political and economic transformations. The destabilization of polish country, during changes in political system, started the development of the organized crime, abusing the authority and investigative authorities’ weakness. The 90’s are the greatest time of two, coming from Warsaw, groups, which managed to subordinate the whole criminal country – Pruszkow and Wolomin. The “mafia decade” of Pruszkow and Wolomin is the time of: earning enormous fortune, spectacular events and extremely bloody war, carrying a huge number of victims. 90’s is also the time of using experience in creating eff ective system of fighting against organized crime. Introducing in 1997 the term of crown witness – “apologetic criminal” became the decisive moment. Spectacular end of Pruszkow was the eff ect of the statement of crown witness – gangsters aggravating their cooperatives. It is all mostly about Jaroslaw Sokolowski, nickname “Masa”. His statement appeared crucial during investigations at the most important members of Pruszkow’s group. Sokolowski`s “flawlessness” as a crown witness, is not clear, in spite 20 years lasted from mentioned incident. The case of Pruszkow and Wolomin presents the danger for country`s safety, what comes from the side of organized crime, during political transformation.
Keywords: crime, transformation, system, mafia, Poland

Michał Szymański
Jagiellonian University
Victimless crimes in the light of the Polish Constitution and the jurisprudence of Constitutional Court 

Summary: The term “victimless crimes” is one of the leading concepts of American criminology, also used by libertarian circles. It assumes that acts that do not cause harm to the other person (or are made with his consent) should be legal.
This theory has also found a resonance in American constitutionalism, whereas in Polish science of constitutional law this concept is virtually unknown. The case law of the Constitutional Tribunal is also more conservative and paternalistic than libertarian. The Tribunal did not consider unconstitutional provisions to drive a car with fastened seatbelts. Possession of marijuana for own use also, in the Court’s opinion, may also be prohibited by Polish law and the justifi cation used typical conservative arguments. The Polish Constitution also protects public morality, which is in direct contradiction to libertarianism.
The author of the concept, Edwin Schur, also considered abortion as “victimless crime”. The Constitutional Tribunal has an extremely different position, recognizing the need to protect unborn life. The axiology of the Polish Constitution is closer to the same spirit of Christian democracy than to extreme liberalism.
Keywords: libertatianism, constitutionalism, paternalism, seatbelts, abortion, marijuana

Jolanta Kaczmarek
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
The Congress of Polish Women as an example of the struggle for women’s rights

Summary: When considering the issues related to the fi ght for women’s political it is not possible to disregard some of the most important factors determining the level of women’s participation in political life. As regards scientifi c discussion on the presence of women in government roles, the most frequently cited reason contributing to lesser representation of women are biological, social, ideological, structural, cultural, religious and economic factors.
100 years have passed and women, who account for slightly more than a half of the Polish society, still have too low representation in the parliament, in many cases their salaries are lower than those of men at similar positions, they play specifi c social and professional roles assigned on the grounds of sex, and still some people try to marginalize them professionally and deprive of their freedoms. The aim of this text is to analyze premises for the establishing of the Association of Congress of Women and results achieved over the past ten years. The main objectives adopted for purpose of the text include the verifi cation of demands set by the Association and their implementation, and the analysis of its activity in terms of socio-political changes. Content analysis was used as the method.
Keywords: Congress of Polish Women, women’s rights, women in politics

Karolina Grychowska
University of Wrocław
Protection of personal data based on the example of the Senator’s office 

Summary: The concept of personal data protection is currently a very important topic. This is the result of the entry into force of the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free flow of such data, which came into force on May 25 this year. Personal data and their protection is an area that applies to every citizen. It should be stated that there are more and more ways of collecting data. It also involves a special need to protect them. There are many reasons that imply the need for a broad regulation of personal data protection rules. A senational off ice is one of the places where personal data is constantly collected and which, during its functioning, is obliged to ensure data security. The processing of personal data by the Senator’s office is related to the tasks performed by them, including the basic duty which is to provide services for the senator. For the proper processing of data, there are many diff erent documents, including a privacy policy that comprehensively defi nes the protection of personal data in the senator’s office. This article analyzes the law on the performance of a deputy and senator’s mandate, which is the basis for the Senator’s duties. The legal acts have been juxtaposed with several items in the literature presenting the position of the representatives of the doctrine. Undoubtedly, this article is based on the legal-dogmatic method.
Keywords: data, personal data, protection, processing, senator’s office, senator

Wojciech Trempała
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Political preferences and environmental awareness – the case of the inhabitants of the Kuyavian-PomeranianVoivodeship 

Summary: This article presents the results of the empirical research on the relationship between political preferences and environmental awareness among the inhabitants of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The author’s aim was to answer whether respondents’ political preferences transfer to their environmental attitudes - how they perceive the hierarchy of beings and the moral meaning of nature in particular, but also, their willingness to pro-ecological attitude and their readiness to sacrifi ce their own business for the interest of the environment.
Keywords: political preferences, environmental awareness, anthropocentrism, environmental attitudes, biocentrism

Jan Waskan
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Roman Rybarski’s political activity in the Second Republic of Poland

Abstract: In this paper an analysis of Roman Rybarski’s political activity has been done, who was one of the most prominent leader of national camp. In a special way his contribution in polish political thought is outlined. In his political biography an important date was 1919, when R. Rybarski was appointed as an expert of polish delegation to Paris peace conference. After his return, he activated himself politically, linking with numerous national camp organizations. Formulating not only economic program but also his views on nation and society, thus he became an important ideologist of national camp. In period 1928–1935 he sat as a deputy in second and third term Sejm, where he performed the function of National Club chairman. In this paper are also other issues raised, such as R. Rybarski collaboration with Roman Dmowski, as well as tensions and political discrepancies between them.
Keywords: Roman Rybarski, Popular National Union, People’s Party, national camp

Maciej Zaborski
University of Opole
Migration in the teaching of the Catholic Church

Summary: The phenomenon of migrating the population – migration of people (Latin: migratio) has been known since time immemorial. Its purpose is to change the place of stay of an individual or group. Displacements are historical, cultural, social, political, but also religious. The purpose of migration is to change the place of residence for various reasons, including for economic, political and social reasons. The Word of God states that “the earth belongs to me, and you are the strangers and settlers with Me” (Lev 25:23). The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Lumen Gentium (n. 9) teaches that “this people, though it does not currently include all people, and sometimes even turns out to be a small flock, is after all a powerful germ of unity, hope and salvation for the whole human race”. Also today, the Church, in response to the current international – political and economic migration situation, takes a stand in this matter. The article presents the issue of migration in teaching the Catholic Church also as a social problem. The author, striving for maximum reliability and showing the merits of the issue, considered the analytical method to undertake analytical and critical research of sources, referring to conciliar teaching and statements by Pope John Paul II and his successors on migration, emphasizing the moral and social aspect of this phenomenon.
Keywords: migration, teaching of the Catholic Church, Promised Land, Vatican II, John Paul II

Grzegorz Tutak
John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
Migration policy of Poland towards European migration crisis

Summary: The state policy is a derivative of many factors, both internal and external. It is implemented through appropriate activities in various fields of its functioning. From 2015, there has been a revival of the debate over migration issues that are the result of the humanitarian crisis that Europe has been struggling with. According to data from the International Organization for Migration, the number of people seeking a refuge or a better life in Europe has increased fourfold in one year. This situation has forced action by the European Union and individual states aimed at limiting the scale of illegal immigration. The aim of the article is to analyze Poland’s migration policy in the context of actions taken by EU institutions. The fi rst part of the work contains theoretical considerations regarding migration policy. In the second one, the author presented attempts to solve the migration crisis by the European Union together with the attitudes of Polish governments towards immigrants and the issue of their relocation. The article presents the changes that have been made in the Polish legal and institutional system. The undertaken analysis indicates that in the migration policy, which is largely reactionary in nature, the chief value is safety.
Keywords: migration, immigration crisis, Polish migration policy, refugees

Magdalena Bierzyńska-Sudoł
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Polish migrants in the United Kingdom in the face of the upcoming Brexit

Summary: The main aim of the article is to present the situation of Polish migrants in the United Kingdom in the face of regulations related to Brexit. The main research is focused on the Polish community, its features and structure. The author analyzed new living conditions of Poles in Great Britain. Poles are concerned about the change in the economic and political situation. The functioning in a multicultural country, the continuous process of acquiring a foreign reality, seeking a balance between established values, customs and traditions, and finding a new home – fills them with fear and anxiety.
Keywords: migration, Brexit, Poles in Great Britain