World of Ideas and Politics

Volume 10

World of Ideas and Politics

Volume 10/2010

Table of contents:
Studies and analysis:

  • Marcin Kleinowski, The factors that build the strength and power of the state in the international arena
  • Arkadiusz Lewandowski, In search of a model of unity. Democratic Left Alliance and Electoral Action „Solidarność” as examples of initiatives of its consolidation on the political scene of the Third Republic of Poland
  • Robert Gawłowski, The political barriers to the development of metropolitan areas
  • Rafał Willa, Investment Attractiveness of Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship in The Light of Polish Membership in The European Union
  • Tomasz Czapiewski, Intergovernmental relations between regional and national government in decentralised country exemplified by United Kingdom
  • Jacek Piotrowski, Polish press against the aspirations for independence of Lithuania in 1988-1991
  • Radosław Sajna, New media - research perspectives
  • Łukasz Jureńczyk, Zjednoczone Niemcy w globalnym systemie bezpieczeństwa
  • Kamila Kalinowska, Contemporary manifestations of neo-Nazism and neo-fascism in Poland
  • Przemysław Zientkowski, Human rights law of nature - the source or identity? Reflecting the concept of human rights in Western Civilization


  • Jahrbuch Polen 2010. Migration, red. A. Kaluza, J. Wierczimok (rec. Konrad Papuziński)
  • Era Blaira i Browna. Wybrane problemy polityczne rządów Partii Pracy w Zjednoczonym Królestwie 1997–2010, red. F. Gołembski, P. Biskup, M. Kaczorowska (rec. Izabela Kapsa)

Marcin Kleinowski
The factors that build the strength and power of the state in the international arena

The concept of power is central to international relations. This article examine the sources of power and the relationship of diff erent power sources. We fi rst begin by review of a taxonomy of power sources, and after that we generate new taxonomy. The starting point for opening the conceptual aperture is to identify the critical dimensions that generate diff erent conceptualizations of power sources. This paper will begin to address these issues and open the door for continued discussion over the nature of power sources in international relations theory and practice.

Arkadiusz Lewandowski
In search of a model of unity. Democratic Left Alliance and Electoral Action „Solidarność” as examples of initiatives of its consolidation on the political scene of the Third Republic of Poland

The main purpose of this article is to present the phenomenon of forming of main political parties in Poland during the 1990s such as Electoral Action “Solidarność” (AWS) and Democratic Left Alliance (SLD). Moreover, the article partly describes the polish party system and process of its consolidation. The author puts an emphasis on the signifi cance of the parliamentary elite in this process and its infl uence on existence of political parties. The article has been divided into two parts describing history of formation and typical features of each party. The author made an attempt to create the model of consolidation of political party in Poland and outlined its most important elements such as the cause and aim of integration and internal structure of political party. Taking into consideration the consolidation of SLD and AWS there is a visible inability of forming, one, universal model of integration process. It appears that the participating in elections is the only thing that presented parties had in common.

Robert Gawłowski

The political barriers to the development of metropolitan areas

The author tries to answer the question what are the political barriers to the development of metropolitan areas? He concludes that it is incredibly complicated and it causes many confl icts at many levels of authority. Therefore he examines several types of confl icts: confl ict central city versus surrounding municipalities, the region vs. metropolis, the region vs. the central authorities, the central authorities vs. Metropolis. The subject of confl ict is the division of powers between diff erent tiers of local government. The entity most active in the debate on the shape of jurisdiction is the regional level, which is potentially the biggest loser, because losing a signifi - cant portion of its proceeds. Furthermore, in the case of a metropolitan institution manages the development of regional less wealthy individuals. The particular type of confl ict we are dealing at the level of the metropolis and the central government. It is extremely destructive and can lead to ones-zero game, which has the privileged position of the government, which could solve the structure of the Metropolitan (for example of London). In view of the fact that political institutions determine the policy framework, the process of introduction of new metropolitan institutions must be carefully planned. Introduction solutions require consultation and a precise division of powers.

Rafał Willa
Investment Attractiveness of Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship in The Light of Polish Membership in The European Union

Despite the progressing outer convergence of Poland, it can be stated that, with the exception of a few big cities and few areas attractive in terms of tourism and agriculture, all Polish voivodships are threatened by the peripheralization in the integrating Europe. Furthermore, the restructurization processes of industry and agriculture together with a slow privatization of these branches of economy, despite visible positive results, brought about threats of unemployment, a low investment ability, little competitiveness of enterprises or ineff ectiveness of the institutional system. What is more, the above-mentioned dangers occur to diff erent degrees in diff erent regions. Therefore, a low socio-economic cohesion is itself an obstacle to the enlargement of the cohesion at the European level. This paper tries to present the current level of socio-economic development of Polish voivodships, especially Kujawsko-Pomorskie, within the context of cohesion policy of the European Union.

Tomasz Czapiewski
Intergovernmental relations between regional and national government in decentralised country exemplified by United Kingdom

After Scottish Devolution referendum in 1997, Parliament of United Kingdom passed the Scotland Act 1998, creating the Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive. Changes in United Kingdom structure created situation similar to federal countries, where national and regional governments need to cooperate and coordinate their activities. Intergovernmental relations in the UK are mostly relations between executives, with limited role of parliaments. This paper analyzes intergovernmental relations in two periods – before 2007, when formal institutions like Joint Ministerial Committee were rarely used and after 2007, when Scottish Executive and UK Government were led by diff erent political parties – Scottish National Party on the regional level and Labour Party on the national level. The aim of the article was to describe intergovernmental relations throughout 1999-2010 years, explain asymmetry, informality and inconsistency of this relations and prognose future relations in the context of Calman’s Commission works.

Jacek Piotrowski
Polish press against the aspirations for independence of Lithuania in 1988-1991

Polish press in the period 1988–1991 was naturally interested in the aspirations of Lithuania to gain the independence. It was one of the Soviet republic that had common borders with Poland. The independence of Lithuanians led the chance of economic and political co-operation between this two countries, but also could create many problems like ethnic confl icts. The interest was far greater. The similar transformation that Lithuania had been going trough, at the same time took place in Poland. In the period when Lithuania developed the independence movement, the Polish media also experienced many changes. That’s why their attitude towards the events in the Soviet Union and Lithuania was changing in this course of time. At the time of communism, Polish press supported the ambition to cultural and historical rising in various Soviet Republics. Journalists didn’t see in that any opportunity for independence of the republics but the threat of destabilization of the Soviet Union. The USSR was seen by Polish press as monolith and its individual republics as an integral part. It was similar to the off icial policy of polish and soviet authorities. With the fall of communism in Poland many papers fully independent from authorities were formed and journalists started to support the aspirations of Lithuania to independence. Since that time their interest in events in Lithuania has raised. It happened also because the Lithuanians had more courage to raise the independence slogans. These issues were in the sphere of Polish publicists interest also because of their involvement in building democracy in Poland. Journalists in Poland reported and comment the facts with the great concern: declaration of independence, situation after economic lockout and the Soviet intervention in this republic. At that time publicists fully supported the Lithuanians and criticized soviet policies towards the Republic of Lithuania. But their opinion about leader of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, was ambiguous. They understood his role in the annihilation of a totalitarian communism in the Soviet Union. Among Polish journalists the most popular was the point o view that the independence of Lithuania is possible only through dialogue and cooperation with Moscow. Poland had afraid the power of the Soviet Union until its collapse.

Radosław Sajna
New media - research perspectives

The term “new media” should be considered in accordance to the temporal and spatial context, because something “new” could be “new” only now and here or would be “new” only someday and somewhere, and not forever and everywhere. Therefore it is necessary to take into consideration that hundreds years ago the press was “new”, in the 20th Century the radio and television became “new media”, and today the term “new media” means, above all, the Internet, mobile telephones and other digital media. Nevertheless, R.D. Wimmer and J.R. Dominick describe the term “new media” in broader context, taking into consideration also diff erent implications of the ICT to the human and social life. There are many diff erent aspects of the “new media” that need to be investigated, and many of them are subjects of many studies realized by scientists from diff erent countries. They research the impact of the “new media” to the traditional mass media, the infl uence of the Internet on politics and the political marketing, but also other social, economical and communicational aspects of this complex phenomenon. It is important also that the “new media” are useful tools for the researchers on every stage of any scientifi c investigation. There is strong need to investigate the “new media” in diff erent contexts to understand better the new modern reality.

Łukasz Jureńczyk
Zjednoczone Niemcy w globalnym systemie bezpieczeństwa

Zjednoczone Niemcy stanęły przed koniecznością sformułowania kierunków polityki zagranicznej i, co szczególnie istotne dla sojuszników, polityki bezpieczeństwa. W sąsiednich państwach, między innymi w Polsce, pojawiły się obawy o ponowne wkroczenie Niemiec na drogę militaryzmu i ekspansjonizmu. Obawy budził zwiększony potencjał terytorialny i demograficzny, a przede wszystkim ostateczne wyzwolenie się Niemiec z powojennych ograniczeń wynikających z umów między mocarstwami. Z drugiej strony sojusznicy, szczególnie Stany Zjednoczone, oczekiwali od Niemiec zaangażowania militarnego w stabilizowanie sytuacji na świecie. W literaturze przedmiotu badacze zarysowali trzy główne koncepcje dotyczące pozycji Niemiec w światowym systemie bezpieczeństwa, Groβmacht, Mittelmacht i Zivilmacht. W praktyce kolejne rządy zjednoczonych Niemiec podejmowały decyzje, których znamiona są charakterystyczne dla wszystkich trzech koncepcji. Widoczna była jednak tendencja przejmowania przez Niemcy coraz większej odpowiedzialności za światowe bezpieczeństwo. Użycie siły zbrojnej każdorazowo poprzedzała jednak szczegółowa analiza i debata, w której coraz mniejsze znaczenie odgrywała historia Niemiec.

Kamila Kalinowska
Contemporary manifestations of neo-Nazism and neo-fascism in Poland

This article attempts to answer the question whether neonasizm and neofascism are a serious threat to the modern world, especially for Poland. The author shows some reasons of extremism – right occurring in our country mainly the restrictiveness of constitutional regulations in this matter. We can fi nd in this article the way of groups functioning, technical recruiting new members and methods slogans popularization of these organizations on the basis of Polish National Revival, Lech Bubel’s activity and subculture of skinheads. The most signifi cant neo-Nazis’ and neofascist slogans were quoted in this article so that the author is going to prove that they are widely available and that their authors are unpunished. It also shows some diff erences between modern extreme movements and our indigenous ones, and emphasized increasing similarity of Polish movements to the foreign ones. Furthermore, the author proves that in the European countries not only the society but also the government become more and more radical. However the article also presents social initiatives of the fi ght against extreme, such the organization called “Never Again” which promoted three major campaigns : “Music Against Racism”, “ Let’s kick racism out from the stadiums” and “Racism Delete”. The author wants to show the scale of the problem that is the expansion of neo-Nazis’ and neofascist groups. She stresses the need to break with the passivity against extreme – right in Poland and the need to take action against its activity, both government and citizens.

Przemysław Zientkowski
Human rights law of nature - the source or identity? Reflecting the concept of human rights in Western Civilization

Nowadays among the most popular concepts which characterize Western Civilization undoubtedly at the forefront is the idea of Human Rights. Although the enthusiasts of the individual rights’s cult proclaim that their current perspective is the product of modern culture. There is no doubt that sources of Human Rights would have been traced back to Ancient Greek times, in the doctrines of natural law, which was obligatory at that time for everyone and everything. The aim of the article is to present the identity of natural law being the source of Human Rights. This unity fi rmly survived till the time of the Enlightenment, when the French Revolution and following it positivism destroyed religious connection of Western Civilization contributed to the re-evaluation of existing standards. Perhaps, the current belief in the social and technological progress, the development of the idea of democracy or free approach to human sexuality, force the opposite emphasis on the protection of individual rights as well as strictly legal – doctrinal, which is linked with the increasing number of the present confl icts between conservatism and liberalism.