World of Ideas and Politics
Table of contents:
Studies and analysis:
- Izabela Zielińska: A stereotype of politician. The models of political leaders. personality in the publications of "Nasz Dziennik"
- Katarzyna Pająk: The psychology of a terrorist in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's reflection
- Artur Laska: Interpretations of social justice in modern liberal philosophy
- Agnieszka Wedeł: Human rights in the Charter of Fundamental Rights and their place in the constitutional treaty of the European Union
- Maria Siwko: Polish media in the process of Europe's integration (in the light of studies)
- Kamila Sierzputowska: European identity of Poles. Contribution to defining Polish national identity a year after accession to the European Union
- Krzysztof Garczewski: A difficult way to conciliation. On the present day problems between Poland and Germany
- Sandra Nowak: Der Beitritt der Republik Polen in die NATO - em theoretischer Erklarungsansatz aus der Perspektive des strukturellen Neorealismus und aus der Perspektive des Sozialkonstruktivistnus
- Radoslaw Sajna: "Granma" and "El Nuevo Herald" - a Cuban propaganda war before the presidential election in the USA in 2004
- Maciej Królak: The thousandth anniversary versus the Millennium. The thousandth anniversary celebrations of the Polish State in Bydgoszcz and Bydgoszcz Province in 1966 (part II)
- Grzegorz Kaczmarek: Participation and social activity of the Kujawy-Poineranian Province inhabitants
- Aneta Dawidowicz: Bogumił Grott: Religion, civilisation, development. On the idea of Jan Stachniuk
- Daniel Piotrowski: Waldemar Paruch: A political thought of the Piłsudski Camp in Poland in the years 1926-1939
- Katarzyna Polus-Rogalska: Glenn Tinder: Political thinking: perennial questions
- Michał M. Kosman: Peter Bender: America. A New Rome
- Jarosław Reszka: Wiesław Godzic: Television and its types. After "Big Brother"
A stereotype of politician. The models of political leaders' personality in the publications of "Nasz Dziennik"
The political leadership concerns a special kind of performed assignments, arriving at a decision of a greater meaning and rank than the resolutions of other kind of leaders. It is related to power domain that is bigger in comparison with the non-political leaders, because it includes more numerous and more varied measures of authority. This problem is analysed by the authors of publications in "Nasz Dziennik". They comment on the present political and social situation in Poland to show who should be their ideal. As shown by this study, this vision is characteristic of all groups connected with the daily. Due to their association with the same group of media, consumer people who are different in respect of sex, profession and social group activities, share similar opinions.
A scientific background accumulated by the author of the articles, takes also the opinion of the newspaper's readers into account. The analysis of these texts is to compose the models of political leaders. personality to answer the question - what is the 'ideal' promoted by "Nasz Dziennik". Because of the radical language used in this newspaper, the author examines the positive and negative qualities of political leaders to build a true image.
The article shows that the anti.model of political leaders created by the daily contains a criticism of liberals, democrats, autocrats, tripe and figure heads and career bureaucrats. They all are the worse group of leaders due to having the greatest power and access to the media. Although we find many rationalized arguments in their negative opinions, the impression is the same - bad are those who govern. The criticism not only deals with democratic.liberal parties, but it was also leveled at AWS at the end of its regime. The situation of this last party did not live up to the expectations of "Nasz Dziennik", as such models are impossible to realize.
The model is not interchangeable. In the articles, we find the opinions which refuse an ideal role of a particular person in leadership, but at the same time we can hear the voices for building programmes and visions around a strong authority.
The psychology of a terrorist in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's reflection
In recent years terrorism has gathered strength. However, it is not a new phenomenon. In Europe, its beginning goes back to the mid-19th century. Since that time terrorism has undergone evolution. The definition of terrorism causes many problems. Its beginning in Russia was described by Fyodor Dostoyevsky in his .The Devils.. Basing on the novel, one may get an impression that terrorists are people specifically shaped by social and cultural circumstances. At the same time, terrorism becomes a method of fighting which is not connected with one ethnic or religious formation. The terrorists. vision of the world is black and white and clear-cut. The specificity of terrorist methods authorizes to psychological and sociological characteristic of a terrorist. It is both a community and individual features that determine a terrorist. Considering the fact that terrorism dramatically challenges the present social order, it should be submitted to discussion as far as the values practiced by a society and the political system functioning are concerned. Terrorism requires moral assessment and the choice between utilitarianism and ethic absolutis.
Interpretations of social justice in modern liberal philosophy
The problem of social justice is presented as one of the most frequently analyzed issues in the political philosophy of the mid-20th century. Different opinions on this subject amount to interpreting fundamental relations between liberty and equality. Both classics and many representatives of modern liberalism take the analysis of the above issues as a point of reference for their further philosophical investigations.
In this paper, the author considers the category of social justice to be a form of fundamental ethic judgment, applying to the effect the community and their political organization have on the situation of social subjects. The essence of the judgment is correlated with axiological partiality of the subject estimating the situation. However, political philosophy assumes boundary criteria which determine the specificity of individual dimensions on the axis: social justice . social injustice. The aim of the analysis is an attempt to present such circumstances in the prospect of representative philosophies of modern liberalism.
Human rights in the Charter of Fundamental Rights and their place in the constitutional treaty of the European Union
The aim of the analysis is to present a development of the human rights idea in the common legal system that is being created. The analysis concerns the Charter of Fundamental Rights proclaimed in 2000, being a document providing compliance with basic rights in the European Union order. Particular chapters emphasize that the Charter does not create new regulations but only gathers the existing ones, those already respected or at least observable, and puts them in one document. The paper also shows a significant role of general commissioners who are able and have courage, validating their opinions, to apply rightful solutions, though not in force officially. Another problem concerns issues which, in the Charter of Fundamental Rights, seem to be innovative or may become controversial in the future. As a summary, it was pointed that the birth of the Charter was justifiable, even if it is only journals of laws formulated in other legal acts.
Polish media in the process of Europe.s integration (in the light of studies)
A membership in the European Union was a strategic aim of Poland on the turn of the last century, an expression of an aspiration for the greater part of a society to the participation and attendance of Poland at the European structures, which decided on our civilizing future. A role of the media and education in preparing the Polish people for the membership in the European Union was a case of priority. The issues concerning the EU were an important and exposed subject of the transmission in the national media, especially in the period of accession and referendum negotiations. In the years 2000 - 2004 only few terms made such a career as a term "Europe" in a public discussion. As a result of poor information about the costs and benefits of the accession to the EU structures, the media took a key role in informing the society.
Together with nation-wide press, it was the local press that was shaping the European consciousness of citizens in an expressive way. It constituted a factor of integrating the local societies. It also often emphasized the values integrating the local community, being a counterweight to potential alienation in the future European structures. The press tried to create the citizens conscious of their role in making decisions on joining the EU or staying out of it. Its image was presented in this paper on the basis of two newspapers issued in the West Pomeranian Province.
To sum up, it must be admitted that only some of the media carried out the profound analyses concerning the European topics. It seems that the media did not make the whole use, for different reasons, often beyond their control (e.g. financial), of the possibilities of bringing nearer and interpreting the process of European integration to the Polish public opinion.
European identity of Poles. Contribution to defining Polish national identity a year after accession to the European Union
The subjectivity of human - being and the "J" consciousness have been the subject of reflection for many moralists, theologians, philosophers, psychologists and sociologists as well. One of the reasons of using the word "identity" in the political science language, among others, is its usefulness in many analyses of interactions among subjects of political life. The "national" identity plays a special role in this process. The determinants of identity are symbols, rules, and behaviour, which are a requisite of the sense of community.
One year after the EU accession the author analyses some phenomena in Poland in the context of national feelings and their possible transformations in the direction of European society. Analysing the origins of Polish identity and its factors in a new geopolitical situation, the author estimates the essence and character of changes in the Polish society, and studies the possibility of changes in the Polish national consciousness - "a citizen of united Europe".
A difficult way to conciliation. On the present day problems between Poland and Germany
Polish-German relationships have undergone a distinct evolution since the beginning of the 90s. At the end of the last century, most of the controversial issues seemed to have been explained. Despite the effort of many people engaged in the neighboring conciliation, it was difficult to solve all the sensitive problems. The events from the beginning of the new century are the best example.
The main reason of this state of affairs may be ignorance or poor knowledge of the neighbor. The problem concerns particularly the youngest Polish and German generation. Dangerous disrelishes still dominate in the two way perception of the issue.
Przystąpienie Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej do NATO - teoretyczny przyczynek z perspektywy strukturalnego neorealizmu i konstruktywizmu społecznego
Artykuł zmierza do wyjaśnienia przyczyn, dla których Polska w latach 90. rozpoczęła starania o przystąpienie do NATO. Autorka podejmuje się tego zadania, biorąc za punkt odniesienia dwie perspektywy teorii stosunków międzynarodowych: strukturalnego neorealizmu i konstruktywizmu społecznego.
W podsumowaniu autorka konkluduje, iż obydwie teorie są użytecznym narzędziem przy uzasadnianiu polskich dążeń do NATO. W przypadku strukturalnego neorealizmu priorytetowym argumentem było przetrwanie i bezpieczeństwo poprzez dostosowanie się do struktury zanarchizowanego systemu międzynarodowego, czego gwarancją miała być przede wszystkim hegemoniczna pozycja USA w NATO, pełniąca zarówno funkcję odstraszania przed atakiem z zewnątrz Paktu, jak i hamująca skłonności rywalizacyjne w samej Europie Zachodniej. Z kolei, biorąc pod uwagę perspektywę konstruktywizmu społecznego, autorka zaakcentowała takie motywy Polski na drodze do NATO, jak: utrwalenie suwerenności, autonomii, ochrony przed zagrożeniami niemilitarnymi czy traktowanie NATO jako wspólnoty wartości.
"Granma" and "El Nuevo Herald" - a Cuban propaganda war before the presidential election in the USA in 2004
Since the beginning of its existence, i.e. 1965, the Cuban daily "Granma" has been used as a propaganda tube for Fidel Castro's regime. The Cuban opposition, deprived of a possibility of speaking in the public media, had to express their opinions outside the island. Most dissidents settled on the nearby Florida, where "El Nuevo Herald" started to be issued, speaking out on the matters important for Cuba. At first, the newspaper was a Spanish supplement to the American daily "The Miami Herald", and since 1988 it has been a separate title.
Before the presidential election in the United States, both "Granma" and "El Nuevo Herald" used to clash in all possible aspects. The "Granma" criticized George Bush to the bitter end, while the "El Nuevo Herald" supported his tendency toward the re-election to the post of the US president. The Cuban daily was in favor of the revolution in Venezuela, which irritated the Miami publicists. The "El Nuevo Herald", in the article by Pablo Alfonso, wrote about economic nonsense of the Cuban authorities, and the "Granma" described ominous intentions of Americans to Iraq. The basis of the conflict was still a vision of Cuba's development - Castro's communism or pro-American capitalism?
The thousandth anniversary versus the Millennium. The thousandth anniversary celebrations of the Polish State in Bydgoszcz and Bydgoszcz Province in 1966 (part II)
The second part of the present paper begins with the description of Poland's Liberation Day - 22nd July. Both the 1st of May and the 22nd of July were celebrated nationwide according to precise guidelines made by the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party. One should not forget that a serious of events also took place in particular regions of the country, including Bydgoszcz and its surroundings. Therefore, the next chapters describe anniversaries and jubilees characteristic of our Province.
They were, among others, the celebrations of ten centuries of Włocławek and a hundredth anniversary of Julian Marchlewski's birth, as well as the quincentenary of the 2nd Toruń Peace Treaty. In this way, the decision-makers of that region wanted Julian Marchlewski - a great revolutionist - to become widely known. The example of Toruń shows clearly what methods the communist authorities used: the celebrations of the 2nd Toruń Peace Treaty were appointed at the time when the Church celebrated a Millennium of Poland.s Baptism.
The final chapters of the paper concern the Millennium of Baptism in Bydgoszcz Province and how the Church prepared to this celebration. It can be clearly seen that the city's authorities made the realization of the plans difficult for the Church party. A refusal to crown the painting of Heavenly Mother with a Rose in the Old Town Square in Bydgoszcz seems to be an explicit example.
Another problem concerns "Te Deum" of the parishes. According to the Episcopate.s plans, each parish in Poland was to celebrate the jubilee as a thanksgiving for Poland.s Baptism Millennium. The celebrations were called "Te Deum" and usually took place on the day of the annual church fair or the church consecration. The paper gives a wide description of the two Bydgoszcz parishes: Mother of Incessant Help and the Parish Church.
The study ends in describing central celebrations of Poland.s Baptism Millennium in 1966 which were held in Toruń and Włocławek. Yet again the ceremony proved the organization success of the Church party and, most of all, showed the Church.s strong position in the then communist Poland.
Participation and social activity of the Kujawy-Poineranian Province inhabitants
Unlike in the past, the local development, including the direction, pace and quality aspects, may depend not only on external conditions and global processes but also on the scale and way the inhabitants of a given area participate in its creation and maintaining. However, the participation and the activity should not be formal but real. Then we can define the system as democratic, particularly as far as the territorial self-government is concerned, which, in the author's opinion, appears to be the most common and the most important for the sphere of social practice and experiment in Poland. The self-government with its immanent characteristic may become either a main accelerator or a very effective inhibitor, may strengthen or waste the potentials of the community and citizens.
Today this truth is commonly realized and occurs in the theory of planning and managing the local development. Controversy appears in practical approach which is not only far from democratic assumptions but also from the pragmatics and praxeology of the effective social activity in general. In its rational collective activity directed to an aim (at least it should be like this), social participation fulfils a series of constitutive and constructive functions.